4Rs Model of Reflection

Guide for students

This resource was based on the work of Ryan and Ryan's project Developing Reflective Approaches to Writing (DRAW), who build on the work of Bain et al (1999). 

The resource was designed to scaffold students' reflective writing, supporting them in asking questions that will help them delve deeper into the issues being considered. The terminology it contains was used in the criteria rubric for marking the journals.

There are two companion resources: one for teachers that includes examples of questions that they might ask students to encourage the reflective thinking in lessons, and one with example learning journal questions for tertiary music students.


Guide for teachers

This resource was designed to support teachers in asking the sorts of questions that encourage students to think reflectively. Research has shown that reflective thinking assists students in becoming independent and autonomous learners, which is likely to lead to improved learning outcomes.

This resource was developed from the work of Ryan and Ryan's project Developing Reflective Approaches to Writing (DRAW), who build on the work of Bain et al (1999) and Carrington and Selva (2010).